L: 3 
ET 761 Analog System Design 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Operational Amplifier Fundamentals
Introduction.
Linear
DC sources, current to voltage converters,
Comparators. Applications. Level detectors. Window detectors. Schmitt trigger. Precision half wave and full wave rectifiers Peak detectors. Sample and hold circuits.
Signal Generators
Sine wave generators.
Limitations of Practical
DC performance  Bias. offset and
Voltage Reference
Performance parameters. Zener and Avalanche diode voltage references. Drift due to temperature change. Compensation methods. Applications.
Voltage Regulators
Series regulators. Building blocks IC Voltage
D/A and A/D converters
Converter definitions and specifications. Basic DAC techniques. Bipolar DACs. DAC based AD converters. Flash/Parallel converters. Integrating type ADCs Data acquisition and distribution.
Active Filters
First order active filters. Audio filter application. Second order
Logarithmic Amplifiers and Analog Multipliers
Log/Antilog Amplifier. Practical Log/Antilog circuits.
Text Books/references:
1.Sergio Franco  Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits, McGraw Hill Book Company.
2.R.F. Coughlin, F.F. Driscoll  Operational Amplifier and Linear Integrated Circuits, Prentice Hall of India
L: 3 
ET 762 Computer Architecture Organization 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Evolution of Computer
Introduction, different generations till the present time. Basic structure of a computer.
Design Methodology
Components and design techniques at gate level, resistor level and processor level. Processing Unit of a Computer.
Processor organization
Number formats. Instruction formats, instruction types. Fixed point arithmetic, addition, subtraction, division and multiplication.
ALU
Organization floating point arithmetic, arithmetic processor.
Control Unit
Instruction sequencing and interpretation. Control unit design.
Memory Organization
Types of memories. Memory device characteristics. RAM organization. Memory hierarchies. Cost and performance Virtual memories. High speed memories like caches.
Parallel Processing
Introduction and types of parallel processors with performance considerations.
Text Books / references:
1.John P Hayes  Computer Architecture & Organization, Mc Graw Hill Book Company.
2.M. Mano  Computer System Architecture,
L: 3 
ET 763 Digital Signal Processing 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Discrete time signals and systems
Signal and system classification, time and frequency domain representation.
Discrete time signal analysis and linear systems
Linear time invariant system. Linear time invariance. Unit impulse system response. Causality, stability, IIR and FIR systems. Difference calculations and its solutions. Fourier transforms, frequency response, linear phase system. Sampling of analog signals.
Analysis of LTI systems in
Realization of digital systems
Recursive and
Design of IIR digital filters
Approximation theory impulse invariance and bilinear transformations. Frequency transformations. Computer aided design techniques.
Design of IIR digital filters
Windowing and frequency sampling techniques. Computer aided design methods.
Discrete Fourier transforms
Discrete time Fourier series. Discrete time Fourier transforms. Properties, circular convolution and computation of DFT.
FFT algorithm
Basic
Finite word length effects
Quantization errors and their effects on performance of digital signal processor.
Digital signal processing applications
Introduction to image processing, speech and audio processing.
Text Books / references:
1.A.V. Oppenheim and R.W. Schafer  Discrete Time Signal Processing,
2.J. G. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis  Digital Signal Processing: principles, Algorithms and Applications,
3.Alkin  Digital Signal Processing : A Laboratory Approach using
4.MATLAB User's Guide, Math Works Inc.
L: 3 
ET 764 Mobile Communications 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Introduction to Wireless Communications
The wireless vision. Applications and requirements. The obstacles and challenges. A brief historical tour. Standards. Spectrum regulation and
Antennas & Propagation
Antenna fundamentals. Radiation patterns, gain and effective area. Reciprocity. Friis formula.
The Mobile Radio Channel
Multipath propagation and fading. Doppler spectrum and coherence time. Slow and fast fading. Narrowband signals. Stationarity. Power angular spectrum and correlation. Fading distributions: Rayleigh, Ricean and Nakagami. Level crossing rates and average fade durations.
Wideband Radio Channels
Channel Capacity
Basic information theory notions. Shannon’s coding theorem. Capacity. Side information. Capacity of AWGN and faded channels. Rate adaptation. Capacity of
Diversity
Concept of diversity. Macroscopic and microscopic diversity. Diversity mechanisms: frequency, time, space, polarization and pattern. Diversity combining: selection,
Spread Spectrum
Spread spectrum principles.
Multiple Access
Multiuser channels: uplink and downlink. Multiple access schemes: orthogonal (FDMA, TDMA and OFDMA) and
Text books / references:
1.Andrea Goldsmith – Wireless Communications, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
2.David Tse and Pramod Viswanath – Fundamentals of Wireless Communication, Cambridge University Press, 2005.
3.John Proakis – Digital Communication,
4.W. C. Y. Lee  Mobile Communication Design Fundamentals, John Wiley and Sons, 1993, 2/e.
5.T. S. Rappaport  Wireless Communication, Prentice Hall, 1996.
6.W. C. Y. Lee  Mobile Cellular Telecummunications, McGraw  Hill, 1995, 2/e.
7.G. H. Stubber  Principles of Mobile Communications, Kluwer, 1996.
L: 3 
ET 765 Integrated Circuit Technology 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Basic Outline of fabrication techniques; Silicon bipolar transistor as an example. Cost benefits of mass produced circuit blocks, reliability and performance considerations. Disadvantages. Exploiting the inherent component matching capabilities of I.C.s  example from linear and digital circuits.
Introductory ideas about crystal growth and wafer preparation. Short description of the Czochralski process.
The diffusion process. Simple diffusion theory and the evaluation of impurity diffused in silicon  determination of junction depth and sheet resistance. Oxidation and epitaxial growth of silicon.
Lithography. Optical lithography, minimum
Interconnection. Aluminium metallization
Passive components. MOS capacitors and resistors. Calculation of area and the layout of capacitors and resistors.
NMOS and CMOS fabrication techniques. Polysilicon self aligned gate devices. Layout of simple Circuits. Introduction to VLSI processing and layout Stick diagrams and layout and simulation tools.
Other related processes. Ion implantation, dry etching, sputtering, assembly and reliability related evaluation. Future trends.
Text Books / references:
1.Douglas J. Hamilton and William G. Howard  Basic Integrated Circuit Engineering,
2.S M. Sze  Basic VLSI Technology.
3.Douglas A. Pucknell and Karman Eshraghain  Basic VLSI Design, Prentice Hall of India.
4.Andrew S. Grove  Physics and Technology of Semiconductor Devices, John Wiley and Sons.
5.R Jacob Baker, Harry W. Li and David E. Boyce  CMOS circuit design layout and simulation,PHI.
L: 3 
ET 765 Communication System Engineering 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Review of AM and FM broadcasting systems.
Transmitter and receiver circuits and structures.
Television (Black and White)
Signal structure of composite \ video signal. Sound subcarrier. VSB broadcasting and reception. Sound demodulation. Camera and imaging devices. Scanning and deflection circuits.
Colour Television
Colour video signal. Colour modulation svstems PAL, SECAM and NTSC. Transmission and reception. Colour signal recovery. Colour representation in vector space.
Digital Audio and DAB
Principles and formats Important considerations such as encoding and compression. Framing and multiplexing issues and standards.
Telephony
Analogue and Digital. Principles and standards. Principles of facsimile and paging. Introduction to advanced communication systems
Channel coding and transmission over terrestrial, satellite and networks.
Text Books / references:
1.R. R Gulati  Colour Television Principles and Practice, Wiley Eastern Pvt. Ltd.
2.A. M. Dhake  Television and Video Engineering, Tata McGraw Hill.
3.R. L Freeman  Telecommunication Systems Engineering, John Wiley and Sons.
4.R. G. Winch  Telecommunication Transmission Systems,
5.W. C. Y. Lee  Mobile cellular Communications,
6.Wayne Tomasi  Electronic Communications Systems, Pearson Education Asia.
7.Harold Kolimbiris  Digital Communication Systems, Pearson Education Asia.
8.H. L. Rohde  Communication Receivers,
L: 3 
ET 765 Optimization Techniques 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Introduction to optimization
Introduction and scope of optimization. Definitions: design vector, design constraint and objective function. Classification of optimization problems.
Classical optimization techniques
Local and global minima and maxima. Single and
Linear programming
Formulation of linear programming problems (LPP). Standard form of LPP. Geometry of LPP (graphical solution). Solution by the simplex method. Computer program. Duality in linear programming. Sensitivity or
Uninodal functions. One dimensional minimization methods. A brief idea about elimination (search) method. Fibonacci and golden section methods. Quadratic interpolation method. Gradient methods. Method of steepest descent, conjugate gradient
A brief introduction to dynamic programmiry and solution to simple problems.
Text Books / references:
1.N. S Rao  Optimization: Theory and Application Wiley Eastern ltd.
2.H. Taw  Operations Research  An Introduction, Prentice Hall
3. K. V. Mittal and C. Mohan  Optimization Methods in Operations Research 
and 
System Analysis, New Age International. 

L: 3 
ET 765 Micro Electro Mechanical Systems 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Introduction: Historical background, development of microelectronics, evolution of micro sensors, MEMS, emergence of micro machines. Electronic materials and processing: Introduction, electronic materials and their deposition, pattern transfer, etching electronic materials, doping semiconductors.
MEMS Materials and Processing: Overview, metals, semiconductors, ceramic, polymeric and composite materials. Silicon micro machining – bulk: Introduction,
Silicon Micro
Micro Sensors: Introduction, thermal sensors, radiation sensors, mechanical sensors, magnetic sensors, biochemical sensors and flow sensors. SAW Devices: Introduction, saw devices development and history, transducers in SAW devices, acoustic waves.
Micro Sensors: LIGA – Introduction, Application of LIGA, Technology barrier and competing technologies, Microsterolithography – Introduction, Scanning method, two photon MSL, Projection MSL, Polymeric MEMS Architecture with silicon, Metal and ceramics, Applications of MSL.
Text Books/ References:
1.S.M.Sze  Semiconductor Sensors, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1994.
2.M.Elwenspoek, R.Wiegerink  Mechanical Microsensors,
3.Julian W. Gardner, Vijay K. Varadan  Microsensors, MEMS, and Smart Devices, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2001.
4.Massood
5.Eric Udd  Fiber Optic Smart Structures, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995.
6.Kevin Chau  Analog Devices, Inc., Introduction to MEMS Technology and Devices (SC266), SPIE education services, Bellingham WA.
7.Vasundara Varadan, Vijay Varadan  Microsensors and MEMS for Smart Structures
L: 3 
ET 766 Telecommunications Switching and Transmission Systems 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Introduction
Review of circuit and packet networks. Switching systems. Telecommunication transmission networking and media selection (fiber optics, cable, wireless) theory and practices. Network configuration and network technologies.
Network services and architecture
Top down,
Networks
Packet networks, OSI model, packet switching, Internet. Circuit networks, core and access technologies, circuit switching and intelligent networks. ATM networks. Network control and operations, quality of service.
Wireless systems
Cellular system. Wireless LANs.
Optical systems
Components of optical system. WDM, optical routing and
Text Books / references:
th
1.L. W. Couch II, “Digital and Analog Communications Systems”, 6 edition, Prentice Hall, 2001.
2.M. Schwartz, “Telecommunications Networks: Protocols, Modeling and Analysis”, Addison Wesley.
th
3. W. Stallings, “Data and Computer Communications”, 6 edition, Prentice Hall, 2000.
nd
4. A. S. Tanenbaum, “Computer Networks”, 2 edition, Prentice Hall, 1989.
5.T. S. Rappaport, “Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice”, Second Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.
6.K. Pahlavan and P. Krishnamurthy, “Principles of Wireless Networks”, Prentice Hall, 2002.
7.Rajiv Ramaswami and Kumar N. Sivarajan, “Optical Networks: A Practical Perspective”,
nd
2 edition, Morgan Kaufmann, 2002.
8. Thomas E. Stern and Krishna Bala, “Multiwavelength Optical Networks: A Layered Approach”, Addison Wesley, 2000.
L: 3 
ET 766 Multimedia Theory and Applications 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Introduction
History of Multimedia Systems, Hypermedia/Multimedia, HyperText/HyperMedia, Overview of Multimedia Software Tools, Music Sequencing and Notation, Graphics Image and Video Editing, Multimedia Authoring.
Issues in Multimedia authoring
Multimedia Authoring Metaphors, Content Design, Scripting(Writing), Graphics(Illustrating), Animation(Wiggling), Audio(Hearing), Interactivity (Interacting)
Multimedia Data Representations
Basics of Digital audio, Introduction to MIDI(Musical Instrument Digital Interface), Graphics/ Image File Formats, Standard System Independent Formats, System Dependent Formats, Color in Image and Video, Basics of Video, Types of Color Video Signals, Digital Video.
Video and Audio Compression
Basics of Information Theory, Lossless Compression Algorithms, Huffman Coding, Lempel
Text Books/ References
1.Multimedia System Design by Adeleigh and Thakrar.
2.Multimedia at Work by T. Vaughan
3.Introduction to Data Compression by Khalid Sayood
L: 3 
ET 766 Acoustics and Sound Engineering 
T: 1 
Theory: 100 marks 
P: 0 
Sessional: 75 marks 

Time: 3 hours 


Fundamentals of Acoustics: Nature of sound and the physics of vibrations. Wave equations and wave propagation. Plane and spherical sound waves. Sound pressure and intensity. Propagation effects – attenuation and dispersion. Acoustic impedances. Noise absorption and insulation. Measurement of sound level. Perception of sound level and direction. Frequency response of the ear. Standard weighting curves and reference levels for sound measurement. Techniques for measuring sound level. Laws and standards for environmental noise. Health and safety aspects.
Sound Production  Vibrations and Resonators: Vibration of mechanical systems. Wave propagation through various media and boundaries. Resonance. Sound waves in pipes. Helmholtz resonators. Musical instruments. Analogies between acoustic, electrical and mechanical systems.
Loudspeakers, Microphones, Psychoacoustics and Sound Reproduction: Pressure and velocity microphones. Directional and frequency response of microphones. Operational details and properties of various types of microphones: moving coil, ribbon, capacitor, electrostatic. Operation of moving coil loudspeakers. Design of different types of loudspeaker enclosures (infinite baffle, tuned port, acoustic suspension, horn). Psychoacoustic effects and their applications in sound perception. Sound reproduction, Dolby noise reduction,
Acoustics in Enclosed Spaces: Sound in rectangular enclosures: time and frequency analysis. Direct and reflected sound. Diffuse sound fields. Normal modes of vibration in regular enclosures. Transient responses. Reverberation. Statistical characterization of sound in irregular enclosures. Calculation and measurement of reverberation. Reverberation time and other design criteria. Architectural acoustics. Speech and communication in enclosed spaces. Sound transmission through walls.
Principles of Audio Recording: Physical properties of analog tape. Analog tape recording process. Analog tape formats and equipment from visuals. Cleaning and demagnetization of different analog tape machines. Principles of the digital recording process. Digital audio editing. Digital recording machines of differing formats and storage types from visuals. Compare/Contrast the difference between preamplifiers and power amplifiers. Identify and place preamplifiers in the audio signal chain. Identify and place power amplifiers in the audio signal chain, define equalizers, summing amplifiers, distribution amplifiers, isolation amplifiers, impedance amplifiers, power amplifiers, voltage controlled amplifiers.
MIDI: Applications of MIDI controllers, voice modules, and sequencers. Principles of synchronization and equipments used for synchronization. Procedures for implementing synchronization principles and
equipment.
Fundamentals of Signal Processing: Amplitude and wave shape processing. Audio equipment used to manipulate the amplitude and wave shape of audio signals. Compression, limiting, expansion, keying, and ducking. Compressor and dynamics processing equipment. Fundamental controls of dynamics processors.
Application of delays, artificial reverberation and the other types of enhancers that are used in contemporary audio production.
Skills to Plan a Recording Session: Pprocedures of Recording, Overdubbing, Mixdown, Editing. Identify the needs of the client given a simulated recording project. Planning and tracking a recording session. Studio and setup equipment for a recording session.
Books / references :
1.Kinsler, Frey, Coppens and Saunders: Fundamentals of Acoustics, Wiley. 2000.
2.D E Hall: Basic Acoustics, Wiley. 1987.
3.T. D. Rossing, F. R. Moore, and P. A. Wheeler: The Science of Sound, Pearson Addison Wesley, 2001.
4.Bruce and Jenny Bartlett: Practical Recording Techniques. Focal Press, 3rd edition.
2001.
L: 0 
ET 767 Training 
T: 0 
Total Marks: 50 
P: 2 



Industrial training in a recognized organization.
L: 0 
ET 768 Project I 
T: 0 
Total Marks: 100 
P: 8 



Project on any of the following topics:
1.Digital System Design
2.Antenna
3.Communication
4.VLSI
5.Digital Signal Processing
6.Digital Image Processing
7.Microprocessor
8.Robotics
9.Mobile Communication
10.Microwave
11.Optical Fiber Communication
12.Modeling & Simulation