L: 3

ET 861 Digital System Design

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours



Synthesis of clock mode (synchronous) sequential circuits

Analysis of sequential circuits. Design procedure With synthesis of state diagrams Mealy and Moore machines. Partitioning and state assignment. Finite state machine model.

Synthesis of asynchronous sequential system design

Pulse mode circuits and fundamental mode circuits with synthesis.

Design Convention

Register transfer, biasing and sequencing of control. Electronic realization of hardwired control unit. Conditional transfer.

Introduction to HDL

Operand convention of AHPL, APL and AHPL operators. AHPL conventions for combinational logic and memory arrays.


Basic organization, register transfer and AHPL control programmes. Multiple cycle instructions.


Introduction to microprogramming. Microprogramming the RIC. Microprogramming of bus oriented machines in assembly language for microprogrammes.

High speed addition, Multiplication, division and floating point arithmetic

Text Books/references:


J. Frederic and G. R. Peterson - Digital Systems: Hardware Organization

and Design,

John Wiley and Sons, 3/e.



F. J. Hill and G. R. Peterson - Switching Theory and Logical Design. John

Wiley and



L: 3

ET 862 Antenna and Wave Propagation

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours



Electromagnetic Fields

Review of EM theory, Maxwell’s Equations, wave equations, solutions, plane waves, poynting vector, power flow and potentials.

Elementary Radiations

Hertzian and half wave dipoles and loops, radiation patterns, radiation resistance, gain, beam width, directivity, efficiency, effective length, effect or ground resonant and non resonant antennas, folded dipoles.


Broadside and end-fire arrays. Array analysis, elements of arrays. Synthesis, beam width, Yagi-Uda antenna. Rhombic antenna, Log-periodic and Helical antennas.

Microwave Antennas

Parabolic reflectors, horns, lens and slot antennas. Their characteristics and typical applications. Beam-width, polarization and bandwidth.

Matching Network

Antenna coupling and matching networks. Baluns.

Wave Propagation

Propagation modes for different frequencies. Descriptions and salient features of ground waves, sky wave and space propagation. Tropospheric propagation, ionospheric propagation. Computation of field strength. MUF, virtual height, critical frequency, skip distance. Microwave propagation. Fading Diversity reception.

Text Books/ References:

1.F. C. Jordan & K. G. Balmain - Electromagnetic Waves and Radiating Systems - PHI, 1995 4/e.

2.CA Balanis - Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design - J. Wiley & Sons 1982.

3.J. D. Krans - Antennas - Mc Graw Hill 1988. 2/e.

4.P. Krans - Electromagnetics - McGraw Hill 1991, 4/e.

5.R. E. Collin - Antenna & Radio wave Propagation - McGraw Hill.

L: 3

ET 863 VLSI Technology

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours



The MOS field effect transistor. Basic Structure and operation of a MOSFET. Behavior of the gate to bulk capacitor. Threshold voltage and the derivation of the Ip – Vps equation. Parasitic elements and the layout of a MOSFET. PMOS and NMOS depletion and types. Review of fabrication processes. Aluminum gate and polysilicon gate devices. MOSFFT based digital circuits - the inverter with active pull-up, NAND and NOR gates, I/O characteristics and power delay product. Static and dynamic memory cells. Pass transistor circuits. The CMOS structure -fabrication processes, NAND and NOR gates, transfer characteristics and power delay product. Modeling and simulation of MOSFET circuits on SPICE.

Stick diagram. Layout of simple digital circuit blocks. λ – based rules and colour schemes of various layers. Project work that involves the design of a digital system and its layout. CAD tools for simulation and for the design and layout of VLSI circuits. ASICs, FPGAs and CPLDs - their use and programming with CAD tools.

Text Books / references :

1.Douglas A Pucknell and Kamran Esharaghian, Prentice Hall of India.

2.R. Jacob Baker, Henry W. Li and David E. Boyce - CMOS - Circuit Design, Layout and Simulation, Prentice Hall of India.

3.Richard S. Muller and Theodore I. Kamins - Device Electronics for Integrated Circuits, John Wiley and Sons Inc..

L: 3

ET 864 Statistical Signal Processing

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours



Review of Random Variables and Random Process

Independent, uncorrelated and orthogonal random variables, Stationary process, Autocorrelation and autocovariance matrices, Ergodicity, Spectral representation of random signals.

Signal Modeling

AR, MA and ARMA models.

Parameter Estimation Theory

Principle of estimation and properties of estimates, The methods of maximum likelihood, moments, least-square errors and maximum entropy; Autoregressive parameter estimation: Levinson-Durbin algorithm and lattice filter; LMMSE filtering: Wiener and Kalman filtering; Spectral estimation: smoothed and windowed periodograms, minimum variance, maximum entropy and parametric methods for spectral estimation; Adaptive filters: LMS and RLS filtering.

Text books/references:

1.M. Hays: Statistical Digital Signal Processing and Modelling, John Willey & Sons, 1996.

2.Simon Haykin: Adaptive Filter Theory, Prentice Hall International, 1996.

3.S.M.Kay: Modern Spectral Estimation, Prentice Hall, 1987.

4.B.Porat: Digital Processing of Random Signals, Prentice Hall, 1994.

5.J.R.Treichler, C.R.Johnson (Jr.), M.G.Larimore: Theory and Design of Adaptive Filters, PHI, 2001.

L: 3

ET 864 Digital Image Processing

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours




Scope and application of digital image processing. Image acquisition and display. Mathematical preliminaries. Human visual perception.

Image Transforms

2D-Fourier Transforms. 2D DFT. KLT, 2D DCT, Haar transform.

Image Enhancement

Histogram processing. Spatial Filtering. Frequency Domain Filtering.

Image Restoration

Degradation Model. Inverse Filtering. Wiener Filtering.

Edge Detection and Segmentation

Edge detection. Line detection. Segmentation. Texture Analysis and Classification.

Image Compression

Lossy Compression. Loss-less compression. Run-length and Huffman Coding. Transform Coding. Image Compression Standards

Color Image Processing

Color model. Color Image Processing.

Text Books/references :

1.R. C. Gonzalez & R. E. Woods - Digital Image Processing, Addison Wesley, 1993.

2.A. K. Jain - Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, PHI

3.K. R. Castleman - Digital Image Processing, PHI 1996

4.W. K. Pratt - Digital Image Processing, John Wiley Interscience, 1991

L: 3

ET 864 Wireless Communications and Networking

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours




Overview of wireless communication systems and networking. Examples of wireless communications systems: how a cellular telephone call is made? Challenges in wireless communication networking. Evolution of modern wireless communication systems: 1G, 2G, 3G and beyond.

Fundamentals of cellular communications

Frequency reuse and the cellular concept. Interference and system capacity. Trunking and grade of services. Other mechanisms for capacity improvement.

Mobile radio propagation

Characterization of wireless channels. Multipath propagation environment

Linear time-varying channel model. Large-scale path loss. Small-scale fading and multipath.

Modulation/transmission techniques for mobile radio

Digital modulation vs. analog modulation: an overview. Digital modulation techniques. Probability of transmission error.

Receiver design

Equalization and diversity. Equalizers in a communication receiver. Diversity techniques. Channel equalization: linear equalization and nonlinear equalization.

Multiple access techniques for wireless communications

Multiple access in a radio cell. FDMA: 1G AMPS. TDMA: IS-136 and GSM. CDMA: spread spectrum and 3G air interface design. OFDM and 4G mobile communications.

Mobile management in wireless networks

Call admission control. Handoff management. Location management. Wireless and wireline interworking. Internet protocol: IPv6 versus IPv4. IP enhancement for mobile. Transmission control protocol (TCP). Wireless application protocol (WAP) and its security issues. Mobile ad hoc networks.

Text Books/ References:

1.T. S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications, 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2002.

2.J. Mark and W. Zhang, Wireless Communications and Networking, Prentice Hall, 2003.

3.R. Steele and L. Hanzo, Mobile Radio Communications, 2nd Edition, John Wiley and Sons, 2001.

4.T. Ojanpera and R. Prasad, WCDMA: Towards IP Mobility and Mobile Internet, Artech House Publishers, 2001.

5. S. Hara and R. Prasad, Multicarrier Techniques for 4G Mobile Communications, Artech House Publishers, 2003.

L: 3

ET 864 Reliability Engineering

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours



Fundamentals of reliability engineering

Definition of reliability, types of failures, failure mechanism and failure modes. Component co-units, bathtub curves, measures of reliability, failure rates, MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures), MTTF (Mean Time To Failure), reliability functions and hazard rate.

Reliability mathematics

Basic probability theorems, conditional probability, Baye's theorem, basic statistical parameters such as mean, mode, median, variance, standard deviation, high order moments, types of probability distribution and their mean and variance. Binomial, Poisson, normal, log normal, exponential, Raleigh, Weibull and Gamma distributions.

Reliability modeling and assessment

Reliability Logic Diagram (RLD), types of systems - repairable and non-repairable. System configuration – series, parallel, m out of n, standby systems, redundancy. Types and influence on reliability of subsystems. System reliability and evaluation methods - inspection methods, event space method, path tracing method, decomposition method and cut-set and tie-set method. Upper and lower bounds on system reliability.

Reliability data analysis

Data acquisition, documentation and storage problem. Derivation of various reliability parameters from data. Analysis of constant hazard, data and estimation of reliability parameters.

Basic reliability design consideration

Simple creative designs. Reliability consideration, reliability optimization with reference to some given constraints. Reliability and redundancy apportionment procedures.

Fault tree analysis

Fault tree construction, direct evaluation of fault trees, fault tree evaluation by cut-sets.

Maintenance models

Definition of maintainability and availability, preventive maintenance and assessment of influence on reliability/availability of a system.

Text Books/references:

1.M. L. Shooman - Probabilistic Reliability: An Engineering Approach, McGraw-Hill, 1968.

2.E. E. Lewis - Introduction to Reliability Engineering, John Wiley and Sons.

3.K. C. Kapur and L. R. Lamberson - Reliability Engineering Design, PHI, 1985.

4.W G. Ireson - Reliability Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 1966.

5.A. K. Govil - Reliability Engineering, TMH, 1994.

L: 3

ET 865 Optical Communication

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours




Advantages of communication. Elements of optical communication link.

Optical Fibers

Ray theory, fiber cables, step index and graded index fibers. Numerical apertures attenuation dispersion, modal noise and polarization. Fiber modes, single-mode fibers, ultimode fibers. Fiber splices and joint losses. Connectors. Dispersion, mode coupling, and loss mechanics. Glass materials, fiber fabrication, and characterization techniques.

Optical Sources

Basic concepts, optical emission from semiconductor injection lasers. Multimode and single mode, injection lasers. Laser characteristics. LEDs’ structures and characteristics. Modulation response, modulation of lasers and LEDs. Source-fiber coupling.

Detectors and Receivers

Photodetectors, receivers. Receiver noise and sensitivity. Photo detector noise and thermal noise. Receiver structures, preamplifiers and receiver performance calculations.

Optical Communication Systems

System design: link power budget, rise time budget and range System design. Line coding LED and laser drive circuits. AGC and equalization. Subcarrier modulation and coherent systems. Single-Wavelength Fiber-Optic Networks (FDDI, SONET) Wavelength-Division Multiplexing (WDM)

Text Books / references:

1.J. Senior - Optical Fiber Communications, Prentice Hall International.

2.G. Keiser - Optical Fiber Communication, McGraw-Hill.

3.J. Gowar -- Optical Communication Systems, PHI.

L: 3

ET 865 Biomedical Engineering

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours




Development of biomedical instrumentation. Biometrics. Physiological systems of the body. Problems encountered in measuring a living system. Physiological effects of electical Current. Shock hazard from electrical equipment. Methods of accident prevention.

Bioelectric potential

Resting membrane potential of nerves. Nerve action potential. Propagation of action potential. Neuromuscular transmission. Contraction and excitation of smooth muscles.

Cardiovascular instruments

The heart and cardiovascular system. Measurement of blood pressure and flow. Cardiac output. Plethysmography, heart sounds, pacemakers, defibrillators.

Electrocardiogram (ECG)

Temporal and special characteristics of normal ECG Electrocardiography leads. Vectorial analysis of normal ECG. Electrocardiography interpretation of cardiac abnormalities. Digital signal processing methods (LPC, digital filters etc.) for detection of diagnostic parameters of ECG signals.

Patient Monitoring System

Elements of intensive care monitoring. Diagnosis, calibration and reparability of patient monitoring equipment. Instrumentation for the mechanics of breathing. Respiratory therapy equipment. Temperature measurements. Ultrasonic measurements and diagnosis.

The nervous system

Anatomy of the nervous system and neuronal communication. Somatic nervous system and spinal reflexes. Automatic nervous system Characterization of electroencephalographic (EEG) signal. Psychophysilogical measurements. Instruments for testing motor responses. Instruments for sensory measurements.


Physiological parameters adaptable to Biotelemetry. Components of a biotelemetry system. Implantable units. Application of telemetry in patient care.

X-ray and radioisotope instrumentation

Generation of ionizing radiation. Instrumentation of diagnostic X rays. Instrumentation for the medical use of radioisotopes. Radiation therapy.

Medical imaging

Principles of CAT scan. MRI and Ultrasound imaging. Sampling, interpolation and reconstruction. Image enhancement and restoration. Image quantization.

Text Books/references :

1 L. Cromwell, F. J. Weibell and E. A. Pfeiffer- Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurements, PHI, 1996, 2/e.

2.A. C. Guyton - Textbook of Medical Physiology, Prism Books Pvt Ltd., Bangalore.

3.J. G. Webster - Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design, John Wiley and Sons.

4.L. A. Geddes and L. E. Baker - Principles of Applied Biomedical Instrurnentation, John Wiley and Sons.

5.Z. H. Cho, J. P. Jones and Manbir Singh - Foundations of Medical Imaging, John Wiley and Sons.

L: 3

ET 865 Satellite Communications

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours




History of satellite communications. Overview of the course. This course consists of three parts. The first part addresses the satellite systems covering the topics of orbits and constellations, satellite space segment, and propagation and satellite links. The second part reviews satellite communications techniques including modulation, coding, multiple access and on-board processing. The third part presents various satellite communications systems and applications with emphasis on recent development in LEO satellite systems for personal communications.

Satellite Systems

Orbits and constellations: GEO, MEO and LEO. Satellite space segment. Propagation and satellite links; Free-space loss. Attenuation, polarization, fading and scintillation. Link budget analysis.

Satellite Communications Techniques

Modulation and coding techniques. Digital modulation schemes: FEC and ARQ. Multiple Access: FDMA, TDMA and CDMA. Aloha and Demand assignment. On-board processing techniques.

Satellite Communications Systems and Applications

INTELSAT systems. VSAT networks. GPS. GEO, MEO and LEO mobile communications: INMARSAT systems, Iridium, Globalstar and Odyssey

Broadband and Multimedia Systems

Spaceway and Teledesic.

Text Books / references :

1.M. Richharia - Satellite Communication Systems, Second edition, 1999.

2.Pratt, Bostian, and Allnutt - Satellite Communication Systems, 2nd Edition, John Wiley

&Sons, 2003

3.D. Roddy - Satellite Communications, McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001.

4.M. Richharia - Satellite Communication Systems, McGraw Hill, 1999.

5.G. Maral & M. Bousquet - Satellite Communication Systems, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1999.

L: 3

ET 865 Advanced Processor Architechture

T: 1

Theory: 100 marks

P: 0

Sessional: 75 marks


Time: 3 hours



Cost / Performance

Issues in high performance processor design. Performance matrices, architectural abstractions, the instruction-set architecture.

Instruction set

Principles and design, case studies.

The Arithmetic Unit

Arithmetic instructions and various methods of implementation.

The Data path and Control Unit

Data path requirements for different instruction classes. Fixed-Cycle Vs Variable Cycle instruction implementation. Approach to Control Unit design. FSM control and micro programmed control. Exceptions and exception handling.

Performance Enhancement Techniques

Pipelining and memory, hierarchy. Data path pipelining. Instruction level pipelining. Performance issues in pipelining. Software pipelining. Space-time locality and cache memory. Virtual memory, paging and TLB.

I/0 Interface

I/O performance measures. Interfacing I/O to the memory, processor and OS.

Case Studies (in brief)

Intel X86 family and the Pentium. RISC architectures like MIPS, SPARC, Power PC and PARIC.

Introduction to DSP Architectures

Key issues in DSP architecture design, pipelining and parallelism in instruction set. On chip memories and I/O peripherals. Introduction to ADSP 21XX / 210XX family and TMS 320CXX family DSPs. Software and hardware developmant tools.

Text Books / References:

1.D. A. Patterson and J. L. Hennessy: "Computer organization and design", Morgan Kaufman, 1998, 2/e.

2.J. M. Feldman and C.T. Retter: "Computer Architecture - A designer's text based on generic RISC”, McGraw-Hill, 1994.

3.D.Tabak: "Advanced Microprocessors", McGraw Hill, 1995.

4.J. P. Hayes: "Computer Architecture and Organization", McGraw-Hill, 1988, 2/e.

5.M. Mano "Computer System Architecture". PHI, 1993 3/e.

L: 0

ET 866 Viva

T: 0

Total Marks: 75 marks

P: 0




Viva on the whole course and 8th semester project by an external Examiner.

L: 0

ET 868 Project II

T: 0

Total Marks: 150 marks

P: 12




Project on any of the following topics:

13.Digital System Design




17.Digital Signal Processing

18.Digital Image Processing



21.Mobile Communication


23.Optical Fiber Communication

24.Modeling & Simulation

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